Openstack Kolla

List of Hosts: “MAAS, docker, openstack-kolla, kolla” all installed on here

Local Docker Registry

To install multi-node docker openstack, we need to have local registry service, Nexus3 is a GUI visible easy to use registry server.
install it via docker,
create ./nexus3/data/docker-compose.yml

image: sonatype/nexus3:latest
– “8081:8081”
– “5000:5000”
– ./data:/nexus-data

and then “docker-compose up -d” to create docker container. May need to pip install docker-compose.

Launch web browser to host):8081, default account:admin/admin123, then create a new repo type hosted/docker, use port 5000 and enable docker v1.

verify on docker hosts they can login this private registry: docker login -p admin123 -u admin

To pull images from internet repo to local registry


pip install kolla
kolla-build –base ubuntu –type source –registry –push

This will pull all available docker images from internet, and stored at local.

Prepare hosts for ceph osd

part disk label on each host:
parted /dev/sdb -s — mklabel gpt mkpart KOLLA_CEPH_OSD_BOOTSTRAP 1 -1
parted /dev/sdc -s — mklabel gpt mkpart KOLLA_CEPH_OSD_BOOTSTRAP 1 -1
parted /dev/sdd -s — mklabel gpt mkpart KOLLA_CEPH_OSD_BOOTSTRAP 1 -1
parted /dev/sde -s — mklabel gpt mkpart KOLLA_CEPH_OSD_BOOTSTRAP 1 -1
parted /dev/sdf -s — mklabel gpt mkpart KOLLA_CEPH_OSD_BOOTSTRAP 1 -1
parted /dev/sdg -s — mklabel gpt mkpart KOLLA_CEPH_OSD_BOOTSTRAP 1 -1
parted /dev/sdh -s — mklabel gpt mkpart KOLLA_CEPH_OSD_BOOTSTRAP_1 1 -1
parted /dev/sdi -s — mklabel gpt mkpart KOLLA_CEPH_OSD_BOOTSTRAP_2 1 -1
parted /dev/sdj -s — mklabel gpt mkpart KOLLA_CEPH_OSD_BOOTSTRAP_1_J 1 -1
parted /dev/sdk -s — mklabel gpt mkpart KOLLA_CEPH_OSD_BOOTSTRAP_2_J 1 -1

each host needs to install following:

apt install python-pip -y
pip install -U docker-py

apt-get install bridge-utils debootstrap ifenslave ifenslave-2.6 lsof lvm2 ntp ntpdate openssh-server sudo tcpdump python-dev vlan -y

no need to install manually, as there’s a bootstrap cmd doing this job under kolla-ansible: kolla-ansible -i multinode bootstrap-servers

if any deployment failure, copy /usr/local/share/kolla-ansible/tools/cleanup-containers to each host and run it to clean up containers and redo deploy again.

“kolla-ansible -i multinode destroy” can remove all deployed containor on all nodes, but ceph partitions will be kept. so to erase partitioned disks, run following on each host:

umount /dev/sdb1
umount /dev/sdc1
umount /dev/sdd1
umount /dev/sde1
umount /dev/sdf1
umount /dev/sdg1
umount /dev/sdh1
umount /dev/sdi1
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdb bs=512 count=1
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdc bs=512 count=1
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdd bs=512 count=1
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sde bs=512 count=1
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdf bs=512 count=1
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdg bs=512 count=1
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdh bs=512 count=1
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdi bs=512 count=1
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdj bs=512 count=1
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdk bs=512 count=1


Here’s a guide to calculate what number should be used for “swift-ring-builder create “. The first step is to determine the number of partitions that will be in the ring. We recommend that there be a minimum of 100 partitions per drive to insure even distribution across the drives. A good starting point might be to figure out the maximum number of drives the cluster will contain, and then multiply by 100, and then round up to the nearest power of two.

For example, imagine we are building a cluster that will have no more than 5,000 drives. That would mean that we would have a total number of 500,000 partitions, which is pretty close to 2^19, rounded up.

It is also a good idea to keep the number of partitions small (relatively). The more partitions there are, the more work that has to be done by the replicators and other backend jobs and the more memory the rings consume in process. The goal is to find a good balance between small rings and maximum cluster size.

The next step is to determine the number of replicas to store of the data. Currently it is recommended to use 3 (as this is the only value that has been tested). The higher the number, the more storage that is used but the less likely you are to lose data.

It is also important to determine how many zones the cluster should have. It is recommended to start with a minimum of 5 zones. You can start with fewer, but our testing has shown that having at least five zones is optimal when failures occur. We also recommend trying to configure the zones at as high a level as possible to create as much isolation as possible. Some example things to take into consideration can include physical location, power availability, and network connectivity. For example, in a small cluster you might decide to split the zones up by cabinet, with each cabinet having its own power and network connectivity. The zone concept is very abstract, so feel free to use it in whatever way best isolates your data from failure. Each zone exists in a region.

A region is also an abstract concept that may be used to distinguish between geographically separated areas as well as can be used within same datacenter. Regions and zones are referenced by a positive integer.

Run following script on any random host first to create swift templates for kolla to use.


export KOLLA_INTERNAL_ADDRESS= #don’t really need for multinodes

mkdir -p /etc/kolla/config/swift

# Object ring
docker run \
–rm \
-v /etc/kolla/config/swift/:/etc/kolla/config/swift/ \
swift-ring-builder \
/etc/kolla/config/swift/object.builder create 8 3 1

for i in {1..8}; do
docker run \
–rm \
-v /etc/kolla/config/swift/:/etc/kolla/config/swift/ \
swift-ring-builder \
/etc/kolla/config/swift/object.builder add r1z1-${i}:6000/d0 1;

# Account ring
docker run \
–rm \
-v /etc/kolla/config/swift/:/etc/kolla/config/swift/ \
swift-ring-builder \
/etc/kolla/config/swift/account.builder create 8 3 1

for i in {1..8}; do
docker run \
–rm \
-v /etc/kolla/config/swift/:/etc/kolla/config/swift/ \
swift-ring-builder \
/etc/kolla/config/swift/account.builder add r1z1-${i}:6001/d0 1;

# Container ring
docker run \
–rm \
-v /etc/kolla/config/swift/:/etc/kolla/config/swift/ \
swift-ring-builder \
/etc/kolla/config/swift/container.builder create 8 3 1

for i in {1..8}; do
docker run \
–rm \
-v /etc/kolla/config/swift/:/etc/kolla/config/swift/ \
swift-ring-builder \
/etc/kolla/config/swift/container.builder add r1z1-${i}:6002/d0 1;

for ring in object account container; do
docker run \
–rm \
-v /etc/kolla/config/swift/:/etc/kolla/config/swift/ \
swift-ring-builder \
/etc/kolla/config/swift/${ring}.builder rebalance;


Then copy all what’s been generated by this script into kolla-deployer host’s /etc/kolla/config/swift.


By default, kolla uses flat network and only enable vlan provider network when ironic is enabled. so you’ll see this in the ml2_config.ini

type_drivers = flat,vlan,vxlan
tenant_network_types = vxlan
mechanism_drivers = linuxbridge,l2population
extension_drivers = qos,port_security,dns

network_vlan_ranges =

flat_networks = physnet1

vni_ranges = 1:1000
vxlan_group =

firewall_driver = neutron.agent.linux.iptables_firewall.IptablesFirewallDriver

physical_interface_mappings = physnet1:br_vlan

l2_population = true
local_ip =

Move physnet1 from flat to network_vlan_ranges will enable vlan provider feature.


Ironic is Bare Metal Service on openstack. It needs few parts to be installed before deployed by kolla.

  1. apt-get install qemu-ultis
  2. sudo pip install -U “diskimage-builder>=1.1.2”
  3. disk-image-create ironic-agent ubuntu -o ironic-agent (this cannot be done under lxc)
  4. copy generated ironic-agent.kernel and ironic-agent.initramfs to kolla-ansible host /etc/kolla/config/ironic

enable ovs, and then kolla-ansible deploy.

When deploying ironic, iscsid will be required and it may have error “iscsid container: mkdir /sys/kernel/config: operation not permitted”, the fix is to run “modprobe configfs” on each host.

iscsid may fail to start, remove open-iscsi on all hosts will fix this.


pip install python-magnumclient, version 2.6.0.

source user who need to use magnum need to have role in heat

make sure have following value in magnum.conf, otherwise barbican will complain for not being able to create certs.

cert_manager_type = barbican
cert_manager_type = x509keypair

Current COE and their supported distro, it has to match this table, otherwise it will complain vm type not supported.

COE distro
Kubernetes Fedora Atomic
Kubernetes CoreOS
Swarm Fedora Atomic
Mesos Ubuntu

Example to create docker swarm cluster:

openstack image create \
–disk-format=qcow2 \
–container-format=bare \
–file=fedora-atomic-newton.qcow2 \
–property os_distro=’fedora-atomic’ \
magnum cluster-template-create swarm-cluster-template \
–image fedora-atomic-newton \
–keypair mykey \
–external-network public \
–dns-nameserver \
–master-flavor m1.small \
–flavor m1.small \
–coe swarm
magnum cluster-create swarm-cluster \
–cluster-template swarm-cluster-template \
–master-count 1 \
–node-count 1

Collectd Influxdb and Grafana

these combination can be a really nice tool for monitoring openstack activities.

few things need to changed from default kolla deployment config:


FQDNLookup false
LoadPlugin network
LoadPlugin syslog
LoadPlugin cpu
LoadPlugin interface
LoadPlugin load
LoadPlugin memory
Server “” “25826”


enabled = true
bind-address = “”
database = “collectd”
typesdb = “/usr/share/collectd/types.db”

Be caution, it needs [[]] for collectd on influxdb. And also this types.db won’t be created automatically! Even though you can see on influxdb some udp traffic received from collectd, but it’s not stored in types.db until you manually copy it from collectd host/folder. This is critical!!!

Then Grafana is much simpler. You just need to add influxdb as datasource, and make up graphics in the dashboard. if you want to show interface traffic in bit/s, just use derivative and if_octets.

Rally with Tempest testing benchmark

Create tempest verifier, this will automatically download from github repo.

rally verify create-verifier –type tempest –name tempest-verifier

set this tempest verifier for current deployment with modified part in options.conf

rally verify configure-verifier –extend extra_options.conf

cat options.conf

image_ref = acc51ecc-ee27-4b3a-ae2a-f0b1c1196918
image_ref_alt = acc51ecc-ee27-4b3a-ae2a-f0b1c1196918
flavor_ref = 7a8394f1-056b-41b3-b422-b5195d5a379f
flavor_ref_alt = 7a8394f1-056b-41b3-b422-b5195d5a379f
fixed_network_name = External

then just run test, “rally verify start –pattern set=compute” for specific parts of openstack.

Mount cdrom along with disk drive

Some time we’d like to have cdrom mounted with bootable disk to install OS instead of boot from images. In such a case, we need to tell openstack volume a will be a bootable cdrom, volome b will be secondary and be kept as vdb disk. After OS installed, we can then kill whole VM and recreate it again with volume b only and assign it as bootable vda, then it will be working as regular vm.

Here’s how to create VM with cdrom

nova boot –flavor m1.small –nic net-id=e3fa6e8f-5ae9-4da6-84ba-e52d85a272bb –block-device id=e513a39b-36a1-49df-a528-0ccdb0f8515b,source=volume,dest=volume,bus=ide,device=/dev/vdb,type=cdrom,bootindex=1 –block-device source=volume,id=87ae535a-984d-4ceb-87e9-e48fa109c81a,dest=volume,device=/dev/vda,bootindex=0 –key-name fuel fuel

Create PXE boot image

Openstack doesn’t support instance PXE boot. To make it work, we need to create our own PXE bootable image.

Here’s how(only works on non-container):

1.Create a small empty disk file, create dos filesystem.
dd if=/dev/zero of=pxeboot.img bs=1M count=4
fdisk pxeboot.img(create partition and flag it bootable)
mkdosfs pxeboot.img
2.Make it bootable by syslinux
losetup /dev/loop0 pxeboot.img
mount /dev/loop0 /mnt
syslinux –install /dev/loop0
3.Install iPXE kernel and make sysliux.cfg to load it at bootup
mount -o loop ipxe.iso /media
cp /media/ipxe.krn /mnt
cat > /mnt/syslinux.cfg <<EOF
LABEL ipxe
(2 space here)KERNEL ipxe.krn
umount /media/
umount /mnt

And then we need to figure out how to bypass neutron’s anti-spoofing. there are 2 ways to do it, either create flat network so it will not use neutron, or use dhcp opt to redirect dhcp/pxe traffic. In order to avoid future mass, I’d use vxlan network and keep using neutron’s default config.
1. Create new vm using pxeboot.img on PXE subnet with fixed IP,
2. “neutron port-list” find out where the port is, and “neutron port-update” to change dhcp opt to redirect traffic from neutron’s dhcp to PXE server’s dhcp.
“neutron port-update 9dd25815-753b-4138-99ed-e2ba30048c3e –extra-dhcp-opt opt_value=pxelinux.0,opt_name=bootfile-name

neutron port-update f9a416cd-02b0-4397-b0cc-cac6fc2556e9 –extra-dhcp-opt opt_value=,opt_name=tftp-server

neutron port-update f9a416cd-02b0-4397-b0cc-cac6fc2556e9 –extra-dhcp-opt opt_value=,opt_name=server-ip-address”
3. you may also need to change PXE dhcp lease record to mark new vm be assigned with fixed ip, because we didn’t turn off antispoofing, if vm gets assigned with different IP than what neutron dhcp would like to give, it will drop all traffic from this new vm.
to add static mapping for dnsmasq, modify /etc/dnsmasq.d/default.conf ” dhcp-host=AB:CD:EF:11:22:33,,24h”

add whole subnet for a port to bypass antispoofing
neutron port-update b7d1d8bd-6ca7-4c35-9855-ba0dc2573fdc –allowed_address_pairs list=true type=dict ip_address=

Enable Root Access

Kolla image disable root login by default. To enable it, we need to manually add sudoer inside container.

add following inside json under /etc/kolla/config/ceph/, take ceph as an example(file can’t have . in its name, otherwise system won’t read it):
“source”: “{{ container_config_directory }}/cephsudo”,
“dest”: “/etc/sudoers.d/cephsudo”,
“owner”: “root”,
“perm”: “0600”
and then create ceph.sudo under same folder:

Enable usb hot plug for kolla nova kvm

Normally we enable usb hot plug by “virsh attach-device”, and if anything we need to change like controller settings for usb2.0 we use “virsh edit”, but in openstack, nova is monitoring and controlling the whole process of running a kvm, which means it will remove anything added after kvm created by it self, so we need to find a way to bypass its detection.

1.install lsusb to list all usb devices seen on nova compute.

host# lsusb
Bus 002 Device 004: ID 0781:5530 SanDisk Corp. Cruzer
Bus 002 Device 005: ID 0781:5530 SanDisk Corp. Cruzer

2. edit usb.xml to prepare for adding hot plug usb, and “virsh dumpxml instance-000000xx” to dump and save existing instance target.

<hostdev mode=’subsystem’ type=’usb’ managed=’yes’>
<vendor id=’0x0781’/>
<product id=’0x5530’/>
<address bus=’2′ device=’4’/>
<address type=’usb’ bus=’1′ port=’2’/>

address bus = lsusb info
address type bus = controller index info

3.start instance in openstack and then “virsh destroy instance-000000xx” from nova compute.

4.”virsh undefine instance-000000xx” to remove it from database, and edit and add usb2.0 controller within dumpxml file, then “virsh define instance-000000xx” to recreated it.

<controller type=’usb’ index=’1′ model=’ehci’>

5.finally “virsh start instance-000000xx” to boot it. now it should have the new usb2.0 controller mounted and won’t be removed by nova.

“virsh attach-device instance-000000xx usb.xml” to add usb hot plug device.


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